The Nepalese government and Maoist rebels signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) decreeing the end of ten years of civil war, paving the way for the rebels to be integrated into general politics and the June 2007 elections to draft a new constitution. The agreement has been welcomed by an optimistic public opinion, but its implementation will not be easy: some key issues remain and there is a serious risk that the elections will be delayed, which could weigh on the whole process. The United Nations has great credibility, but it will not last indefinitely, especially if there are delays. International support for the monitoring of both armies and elections will be essential. There were sharp differences, including the mandate and results of the United Nations mission in Nepal and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights; On the application of human rights legislation and standards; On the process of transitional justice; Whether donors should channel development funding through the government; and the place of social and political integration in Nepal`s transition. This last point is particularly important, as many in Kathmandu believe that the international community has fuelled ethnic and cassation divisions by supporting the agenda for inclusion. The debate gave rise to deep social fears and acute internal political divisions. A narrative often adopted by some internationals has the government as the villain: slow, incompetent, power-hungry and criminal, thus unable to direct reconstruction. From a Nepalese point of view, it is often regarded internationally as irresponsible and opaque, costly and disrespectful of Nepal`s expertise and sovereignty. There is a nationalist reaction against what many Nepalese consider Western countries and the UN is setting hypocritical and unrealistic normative norms for their country, especially in the wake of the 2006 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which ended the country`s long-standing Maoist insurgency.
The peace agreement provides an orientation towards elections for a Constituent Assembly (CA) after the formation of a transitional government and a government, including the Maoists. In a detailed agreement on arms management, the Maoists pledged to confine their fighters and lock up their weapons under the supervision of the United Nations; The Nepalese army (NA) will be largely limited to barracks. The Constituent Assembly, which is to be elected by a mixed First Past-the-Post system and a proportional system, will also decide the future of the monarchy. Nepal`s development industry, i.e. international agencies and NGOs, Nepalese NGOs, government and bureaucracy, is sklerotic and often ineffective. That doesn`t mean it never works. It seems to be doing it in a certain way. But it sometimes creates or anchors dynamics of injustice or resentment. In the meantime, the development industry has merged with the Nepalese state through such interdependence that a major break seems unlikely.